创造就业机会可以减少贫困

This page lists evidence that job creation le广告 to poverty reduction and improved welfare for the poor.

Most of the academic evidence available focuses on global studies of the relationship between employment and poverty reduction, rather than attributing poverty reduction to jobs created due to a donor-funded programme. Note that t在这里 is a sizable body of evidence though on how donor programmes have increased productivity and incomes of the poor (see 在这里).

  • A literature review by Melamed, Hartwig and Grant (2011) looked at re搜索 on 24 growth episodes from the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s in various countries worldwide. 其中18个国家的贫困程度有所下降. 在其中15个案例中, poverty reduction has been facilitated by a rise in employment in services, in ten cases by a rise in industrial employment, and in six cases by a rise in employment in agriculture (six saw rises in employment in two of the three sectors, but t在这里 was no case of increased employment in all three sectors simultaneously).
  • Loayza和Raddatz (2006) present cross-country empirical evidence that poverty reduction is largely driven by growth in labor-intensive sectors.

T在这里 is also re搜索 suggesting that employment has welfare impacts on the poor beyond increased revenues, 等教育, 健康和社会改善, 其中包括妇女. 

  • An analysis of the role of growing employment opportunities in the ready-made garment manufacturing industry on the lives of Bangladeshi women by 希斯和莫巴拉克(2015) finds sizeable effects on parents’ propensity to keep younger girls in school, and older girls’ propensity to engage in wage work. Both of these factors allowed women to postpone marriage and childbirth. The data are based on a survey of 1395 households in sixty villages in four sub-districts of Bangladesh.